Did You Know?
As a giant breed the Newfoundland has various health problems. Potential owners should familiarize themselves with those problems. Progress has been made in identifying some of the genes responsible for these diseases and their mode of inheritance. It is estimated that every dog carries 5 or more “bad” genes. Responsible breeders don’t guess, they test!
Health Issues of a Newfoundland
This glossary will help to educate you, a potential Newfoundland owner, about the various health problems that are common in the breed. While this glossary is not all encompassing, it provides only general information, we hope it will serve as a starting place for your discussions with breeders. Additional questions regarding a specific condition or individual dog should be directed to your veterinarian. 

Authored by the Newfoundland Club of Northern California.

Orthopedic
Heart
Eyes
Miscellaneous
Hip or Elbow Dysplasia Congenital (SAS) Ectropion / Entropion Cystinuria
Elbow anomaly Non-Congenital (DCM) Cataracts Allergies
Osteochondritis Dessicans (OCD)     Hypothyroidism
Ruptured Cruciate Ligament     Bloat;

In dogs affected with hip dysplasia the hip joints and/or elbow joints do not form correctly as the puppy grows. Affected dogs range from mildly to severely affected. Those who are mildly affected often do not need much treatment when young, but will develop arthritis as they age. Usually anti-inflammatory medications and joint support supplements are effective. If young dogs are more severely affected, they may require medications and possibly surgery, including total hip replacement, at a younger age to enable the dog to live pain free. 

Dogs must be x-rayed in order to diagnose hip and elbow Dysplasia; a positive diagnosis cannot be made simply from watching the dog move. There are three main certifying agencies in North America: the OFA and GDC in the U.S. and the OVC in Canada. The OFA and the OVC require dogs to be two years of age, while the GDC will certify at a year (though they recommend waiting until the dog is older. Dogs free of hip dyplasia receive a rating (excellent, good, fair/acceptable). Dogs free of elbow dysplasia receive a normal certification. The results are available on the Internet (www.offa.org or www.ucdavis.edu). 

Please note: The certification rates only the individual dog and DOES NOT guarantee that dog will not produce a dysplastic puppy. The likelihood of producing this disease can be minimized by considering both depth (number of ancestors) and breath (number of clear littermates and parents littermates) in the pedigree, as well as any offspring prior to selecting a mate.

This is a newly discovered disease in Newfoundland's and has not been written up in any books. The Newfoundland Club of America is supporting research at this time. In this disease the bones in the front legs, the radius and ulna, grow at uneven rates and the elbow joint becomes dislocated. It must be diagnosed by radiographs, and sometimes can be diagnosed as early as four weeks. As the dog grows the front leg(s) bow out in a curve. This condition is considered hereditary although the genetics are not yet understood. To date, there is no reliable surgical treatment and affected puppies are usually euthanized.

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Osteochondrosis, Osteochondritis Dessicans (OCD)
This is a disease of joint cartilage in shoulder, stifle, hock or elbow that occurs usually in young, fast growing dogs. Males seem to be more frequently affected than females. The cartilage surface gets damage, and in more severe cases, a flap of cartilage is created. Sometimes this flap comes loose and forms a chip within the joint. The chip can be removed surgically with fair to excellent results, depending upon which joint is affected. Dogs with this problem usually are lame in the affected leg at sometime during their youth.

Panosteitis (Pano)
This is a painful inflammatory bone disease of young, rapidly growing dogs. Pano causes lameness in the affected limb and the lameness may “rotate” among all four legs. It is usually a self-limiting condition that most dogs outgrow. The dog may require some limitation of activity, i.e. no free play, and anti-inflammatory medication if the pup is very painful. Pano commonly occurs between 6 months and 18 months, but is known to occur in older dogs, and tends to run in families.

Ruptured Cruciate Ligament
This ligament stabilizes the dog’s knee or stifle joint. A sudden rupture of the ligament causes sudden lameness in the rear (i.e. holding up one rear leg or a severe limp) while a partial tear may be subtle, with only mild lameness and muscle wasting apparent on the affected side. This problem may have some genetic basis, frequently occurs in middle-age dogs, but is also a common twisting injury. Strains and partial tears may respond to rest, medication and rehab while more severe damage will require surgical repair. The newer TPLO or TWO repairs gives good to excellent results.

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Subaortic Stenosis (SAS)
This is an inherited disease in Newfoundland's, although the mode of inheritance appears complicated and is not yet completely understood. A ring of tissue forms below the aortic valve in the heart, restricting the blood flow and increasing the pressure within the heart. The heart tissue overgrows in response to the increased pressure, outgrowing its own blood supply and causing scar tissue to develop that interferes with the electrical impulses in the heart. Puppies can develop a murmur throughout their first year of life, but usually those with significant disease develop murmurs within the first 9 weeks of life. Occasionally, a puppy will have no murmur at a young age, but when checked again at one year, will have developed the disease. 

This disease can only be positively diagnosed by auscultation (listening to the heart) in combination with cardiac ultrasound. The ultrasound will usually show the physical defect and is also used to measure the velocity and pressure of blood flow and show heart function. The results enable the cardiologist to grade the murmur and the severity of the disease. Murmur sounds do not always correlate with the severity of the disease. Some of the signs of SAS include lethargy, exercise intolerance, fainting, and sudden death. Mildly affected puppies have about a 1% greater chance of sudden death while moderate disease increases this risk by nearly 15%. Affected puppies can have their life span extended with medication. If left untreated, severely affected puppies have a life expectancy of under three years.

The following are other heart diseases that are commonly inherited in other breeds, but that may occur in Newfoundland's, sometimes in conjunction with SAS.

Pulmonic Stenosis (PS)
In this disease a ring of tissue forms below the pulmonic valve in the heart. It causes murmurs and may affect the dog’s health and life span, depending on the severity and if it appears in conjunction with other defects.

Patent Ductus Arteriosis (PDA)
In this disease the passageway between the two sides of the heart that normally closes at birth fails to close and the dog has a murmur. This can be surgically repaired.

Tricuspid Valve Dysplasia (TVD)
This is a malformation of the tricuspid valve in the heart allowing blood to “leak” through the valve in the wrong direction. It causes murmurs. Effect on the dog’s health and life span depends on the severity of the malformation. This disease is known to be inherited in Labrador Retrievers.

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Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM)
This is a disease that usually develops later in life in many breeds of dogs, including the Newfoundland and other large and giant breeds. A weakening and thinning of the heart muscle occurs, leaving the dog with a large, flabby, and inefficient heart. It eventually causes heart failure. There is research being done in Newfoundland's and other breeds to determine if a lack of certain dietary elements may increase a dog’s risk. 

At this time some forms of the disease respond to diet changes and/or medications that may slow down the heart failure. In many dogs this disease is also accompanied by atrial fibrillation, which is where the heart beats very irregularly and too fast. Medications are sometimes effective at slowing the heart rate.

Eyes
There is a registry for eye diseases called the Canine Eye Registration Foundation (CERF). A dog must be checked by a Board Certified Ophthalmologist, who examines the eyes for any signs of disease. The registration is good for one year only, as many eye diseases that are inherited can develop as the dog ages.

Ectropion/Entropion
These conditions cause the eyelids to roll out (Ectropion) or to roll in too tightly (Entropion). Some dogs have both problems in the same eyelid. Poorly fitting lids may cause excessive tear production or allow the eye to become too dry, damaged or infected. Depending on severity, the impact on the dog may be controlled with eye-drops and lubricants or corrected surgically. This is considered to be an inherited problem and dogs that have surgical correction of their lids are not allowed to compete in AKC conformation shows.

Cataracts
In this disease the lens of the eye becomes cloudy, impairing the dog’s vision. Some dogs can be born with this condition (called congenital or juvenile cataracts) and this form is generally considered to be inherited in most breeds of dogs. Other cataracts develop only in old age and are particularly common in dogs with Diabetes Mellitus. They can be surgically removed. 

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Cystinuria
Affected dogs have an abnormal absorption of cystine (an amino acid) by the kidney that results in the formation of crystals and/or stones in the urine. This can lead to recurrent or frequent urinary tract infections and causes painful urination especially in males. Males, because of the anatomy of their urinary tracts, are at risk for a blockage by a stone. This is an emergency that often requires surgery to remove the stones. Some cases may be managed by restrictive diet.

This is an inherited disease in Newfs and is caused when a puppy inherits two copies of a recessive gene, one from each parent. Dogs that carry only one copy of the defective gene are called “carriers” and do not have the disease or show any symptoms of the disease. However, if two carrier dogs are bred together, approximately 25% of their offspring will have the disease. DNA testing is available to determine the clear (no copies of the gene) or carrier (one copy of the gene) status of unaffected animals. Additionally, a dog may be determined clear by pedigree since it must be clear if both its parents are clear.

Allergies
Newfoundland, as well as most other breeds of dogs may allergies to food, fleas, pollen or other environmental allergens. Typically allergies cause skin problems, recurring ear infections or digestive problems. Medications, proper parasite control, and sometimes diet changes can effectively manage many allergies.

Hypothyroidism
A hypothyroid dog does not produce enough thyroid hormone. Some of the more common signs are lethargy, poor coat and weight gain. However, some dogs do not show any distinct signs. It is usually a disease of middle age or older dogs, but occasionally young dogs are affected. Blood testing is the only method for diagnosis. Daily medication can manage the disease.

Bloat
This is an emergency, life threatening condition in which the stomach fills with gas and may twist back on itself cutting off the blood supply. A dog with bloat may act distressed and may try, unsuccessfully, to vomit. This disease requires immediate veterinary attention in order to save the dog’s life. Outcome of the surgery is dependent on the dog’s general condition and the damage done to the stomach and other internal organs during the bloat.

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